Margareth Geertruida Zelle ( August 7, 1876- October 15, 1917) is the most famous and controversial spy of World War One. She was also known as Mata Hari, a Dutch born woman who carried exotic stripping to an art form. So many myths and legends have surrounded her past that it's hard to tell reality from mystery.
Greta Garbo Portrayed Mata Hari in the 1931 Film produced by MGM
Margareth Zelle (Mata Hari) was an admitted courtesan, was not as she invented, an exotic dancer from India, and she was shot by the French accused falsly to be a German spy. Historians now say that her principal French accuser was in reality a spy for the Germans and that her death was as much a needless charade as were her bumbled attempts at spying.
The Execution of Mata Hari in 1917
She stood alone in the sodden field on the outskirts of Paris, her fashionable ankle boots firmly planted in the mud churned up by the cavalry who drilled there. No, she would not be tied to the stake, she told her executioners politely. And nor would she allow them to blindfold her. She faced the barrels of the firing squad without flinching. Earlier, at 5am, they had woken her in her filthy cell in the Prison de Saint-Lazare to tell her this was the day she would die. She dressed in her best - stockings, a low-cut blouse under a dove-grey, two-piece suit. On her head she perched a three-cornered hat at a jaunty angle, hiding her greying hair, unkempt and unwashed through nine months of incarceration. Over her shoulders she slung a vivid blue coat like a cloak to keep out the cold October air. In a black car with its window blinds down, Margaretha Zelle, convicted of espionage, was then driven at speed through the still streets of the capital - a place she loved with a passion, though she was Dutch not French - to this damp and drear spot. The 12 soldiers in their khaki uniforms and red fezzes raised their rifles. She waved to the two weeping nuns who had been her comfort in prison and on her last journey. She blew a kiss to the priest and another to her lawyer, an ex-lover. The sun was coming up when the shots rang out. Zelle slumped to the ground. The officer in charge marched forward and fired a single bullet into her brain, the coup de grace. An extraordinary life was over. The woman who was executed that day in 1917 was better known as Mata Hari, the name Zelle had chosen for herself when she became Europe's queen of unbridled eroticism, an exotic dancer, courtesan, harlot, great lover, spendthrift, liar, deceiver and thief.
Mata Hari's body was not claimed by any family members and was accordingly used for medical study. Her head was embalmed and kept in the Museum of Anatomy in Paris, but in 2000, archivists discovered that the head had disappeared, possibly as early as 1954, when the museum had been relocated. Records dated from 1918 show that the museum also received the rest of the body, but none of the remains could later be accounted for.
In a fascinating biography, American academic Pat Shipman makes the case that, far from being the betrayer, she was the one betrayed, and by that breed she loved all her life - men. It was men who, like witchhunters, built the case against her, driven by prejudice not fact. And with France gripped by anti-German spy mania, few would stick their heads above the parapet to defend her. Britain's fledgling intelligence service, MO5 (soon to change its name to MI5) also helped dig her grave with, as we will see, the dodgiest of dossiers.
But in the story of Mata Hari, there was one thing that needed no sexing-up - Mata herself. Sex was the driving force of her life. In the little Dutch town where she grew up, her shopkeeper father lavished extremes of affection on his "little princess". It made her vain, self-centred and spoilt, and with an insatiable longing for male attention. At school, the 16-year-old bedded the headmaster. Was he the seducer or her? No one knows, but this was 1893 and it was the girl who was sent home in shame. The restless teenager now set about finding a man to take her away from the stuffiness of Dutch society.
When, through a Lonely Hearts ad, she met Captain Rudof MacLeod, a hard-living, hard-drinking officer home on leave from Holland's vicious colonial wars in the East Indies, she didn't care that he was 22 years older than her. He was handsome, with a splendid moustache. She was tall (5ft 10in) and elegant, with flirty dark eyes and a dark olive complexion. The attraction was immediate, sexual and very strong. She told him she longed to do "crazy things" and they were engaged within six days. They married three months later, she in a bright yellow gown rather than the traditional white.
There were problems almost straight away. She couldn't keep her eyes off the other officers and, as she was the first to admit, did not have it within her to be "a good housewife". "I was not content at home," she later confessed. "I wanted to live like a colourful butterfly in the sun." He was jealous, though saw no reason why he should forego the womanising, drinking and coarseness of his bachelor days. He was constantly in debt; she was extravagant, always spending. As for his syphilis, caught overseas, he neglected to tell her. The omens were not good.Nonetheless, she bore him two children, and they returned as a family to his new posting in the colonies.
Mata Hari's Daughter
In the exotic surroundings of Indonesia, their marital problems multiplied. She did not fit the mould of the officer's wife, not least because her dark skin made the snobbier women suggest she had native blood in her. To the men, however, that look was seductive, and she made the most of it. "Her languid, graceful style of moving, her dark eyes and luxurious hair, telegraphed her sexuality to any male in her presence," writes Shipman. "She drew every man's lustful admiration and every woman's envy. She was seen as morally dangerous, selfish and frivolous." The marriage deteriorated into sharp quarrels, too much drinking, rows about money and accusations of infidelity. But what destroyed the union was tragedy. Their son, Norman, was struck by serious illness and died at the age of two. His sister, one-year-old Nonnie, nearly died, too, but pulled through. The boy's death shattered both parents. Who was to blame? A local nanny was said to have poisoned the children because of some grievance, real or imagined, against MacLeod, though no case was ever brought. Nor was the death ever reported in the colonial press. For some reason, it seemed to have been hushed up. Shipman's hypothesis is that the children were being treated for congenital syphilis, caught from their father, and the garrison doctor accidentally overdosed them with mercury. Whatever the real cause of the boy's death, the couple blamed each other.
The relationship sank into hatred. His wife was "scum of the lowest kind" MacLeod told his family back in Holland, "a woman without heart, who cares nothing for anything". On that he was wrong - she cared for officers. He caught her with a second lieutenant. She flaunted herself in a low-cut dress at a ball. She was punishing him by stoking up his jealousy. He punished her in return with a cat-o'-nine-tails. She wrote to her father: "I cannot live with a man who is so despicable. I eat and live apart and I prefer to die before he touches me again. My children caught a disease from him." MacLeod left the army and the family returned to Holland. There they separated. But MacLeod had one more weapon to use against her. He put an advertisement in the local papers warning shops not to give her credit because he had resigned all responsibility for her. It left her penniless. She had to earn money - and there was only one way she knew how. Sexual favours were her only useful assets, but she did not see Holland as the best place to exploit them. In 1903, with little money and no contacts, she took herself off to Paris.
There, she would recreate herself as a model, an actress, perhaps, or a chic cosmopolitan in that chicest of cities. But, as Shipman tells us, "the only dependable source of income available to her was pleasing men for money." But then a circus gave her a job, and the owner advised her where her talents lay - dancing. And dance she did. From the depths of her experiences in the East Indies she invented what she called "sacred dances".
They were exotic and seemed to have some mysterious eastern mythology about them but, most of all, they involved her ending up all but naked. It was a brilliant move. Dancers at the Moulin Rouge were flashing their knickers and breasts but Zelle's great departure was to push the bounds of discretion even further and wrap sex up with religion and art. She began by performing in private homes, but soon the stories of her "artistry" and, above all, her nudity were passing round the salons of Parisian high society. She wore a beaded metallic bra, which never came off - she was self-conscious about her tiny breasts - but the veils covering the rest of her floated free as she danced in "slow, undulating, tigerlike movements". The critics enthused, "feline, trembling in a thousand rhythms, exotic yet deeply austere, slender and supple like a sacred serpent". She added spice to the performance with lies. First there was her name - Mata Hari, meaning "sunrise" or, more literally, "the eye of the day", in the language of the Dutch East Indies. Then there were the stories to the press, that she was the daughter of an Indian temple dancer who had died giving birth to her, that she grew up in a jungle in Java.
Her life became an unending performance, both on stage and off. Her success seemed unstoppable and the money came rolling in. But she still managed to spend more than she earned as she travelled Europe, picking up lovers, dropping some, keeping others. "Tonight I dine with Count A and tomorrow with Duke B. If I don't have to dance, I make a trip with Marquis C. I avoid serious liaisons. I satisfy all my caprices," she said. All too soon she was suffering from over-exposure in another sense. By 1908 anyone who was anyone in Europe had seen her dance at least once, while the lesser theatres were overrun with imitators doing Oriental dances. The dance work was now more irregular and increasingly she would have to rely on her men friends for her livelihood. One, a stockbroker, provided her with a chateau in the Loire and another house on the Seine - until he went bankrupt. Still she refused to cut her prodigious spending or alter her outrageous lifestyle. When she was frantic for money, some said, she would ply her trade at Paris's maisons de rendez-vous, one step up from ordinary brothels. Her financial problems seemed eased when in May 1914 she signed a contract to dance for six months at the Metropol in Berlin, starting in September. But the political situation overtook her. When war broke out in August that year, though Holland was neutral, she was stuck in a now belligerent and increasingly jingoistic German capital with no money and no job. Her fur coats and money had been seized. She charmed a Dutch businessman to pay her train fare to Amsterdam. Back in Holland, she took up again with a former lover. Aristocratic and wealthy, he was just her type. There she was visited by Karl Kroemer, the German consul, who told her he was recruiting spies. He gave her 20,000 francs and a code name, H21. She took his money but she didn't take him seriously. She told herself the cash was compensation for the furs taken from her in Berlin and threw away the invisible ink he gave her. "As she never had the slightest intention of spying for Germany, she felt no guilt or obligation to do anything for the money she had accepted. She had always taken money from men because she needed it and they had it; she always felt she deserved it," says Shipman. Others, ominously, would not agree.
Naively, she failed to realize the Europe she had travelled through so freely and so promiscuously had disappeared for ever. British counter-intelligence certainly had her number. They stopped her at Folkestone, while she was travelling from Holland to France via Britain to avoid the front-line, and recorded that "although she was thoroughly searched and nothing incriminating was found, she is regarded by police and military to be not above suspicion". A copy of the report was sent to intelligence officials in France, Britain's ally against Germany. But on what was this suspicion based? The report noted that she "speaks French, English, Italian, Dutch and probably German. Handsome, bold type of woman". And that, says Shipman was the key. "The problem was not what Mata Hari said but who she was. She was a woman travelling alone, obviously wealthy and an excellent linguist - too educated, too foreign. Worse yet, she admitted to having a lover. Women like that were immoral and not to be trusted." A British intelligence officer in Holland now added to Mata Hari's dossier with rumours about payments to her from the German embassy. He added, with no evidence whatsoever: "One suspects her of having gone to France on an important mission that will profit the Germans." In Paris, Mata resumed her glamorous life, living at the Grand Hotel and with plenty of men in uniform to keep her occupied. She did not know that two secret policemen were tailing her. They steamed open her letters, questioned porters, waitresses and hairdressers and collected abundant evidence of her love life - but not of espionage. She spent a day and a night with the Marquis de Beaufort, had a flirtatious dinner with a purveyor of fine liquors and then met another lover, who embarrassingly for the secret policemen was a senior colleague from their own bureau. But her main intention at this time was to get a permit to go to the town of Vittel, which was in the eastern war zone, because she was desperate to see the man with whom she had fallen deeply in love, a Russian captain 18 years her junior named Vadime. For that, she had to apply to the head of French Intelligence, Captain Georges Ladoux, an ambitious man who had staked his reputation on France being riddled with foreign spies and his being able to destroy their network. He was in need of an attention-grabbing case to prove the worth of his bureau. He regarded Mata as little better than a prostitute; she thought him small-minded and coarse. They fenced words with each other. She wanted her pass to Vittel. He agreed, if she promised to enlist as a spy for France. The entire encounter was bizarre, Shipman argues. If Mata Hari was already a German spy, as Ladoux believed, then he was foolhardy to try to recruit her to be a French one. Mata Hari was known by sight throughout Europe. Her comings and goings were reported in gossip columns. Wherever she went, she was the centre of attention. It is difficult to imagine a woman less able to engage in clandestine activities. But she accepted his offer - as long as she was given enough money to pay off her massive debts and settle down with Vadime.
The great seductress wanted out of the game. But it was too late. Ladoux was convinced she was a German spy, however ridiculous that was. So, too, were the British. For Mata Hari, everything in her tangled life was unravelling dangerously. She went to Vittel and had a blissful interlude in the spa town with her Russian. On her return to Paris, Ladoux sent her on her first mission - to German-occupied Belgium where she said an ex-lover could steer her into the arms of the German military governor. But Belgium proved impossible to reach and she ended up in Spain. There, she turned her charms on a German captain, an intelligence officer named Kalle, and stretched out on a chaise longue as he told her secrets about German manoeuvres in North Africa. This information she triumphantly passed on to Ladoux, believing she was doing his bidding, earning the million francs he had promised her. Instead, she had fallen into his trap. Her meetings with Kalle would be turned against her, twisted to claim that she was handing over French secrets to the enemy rather than teasing out German ones. On February 10, 1917, a warrant for her arrest was signed by the French war minister. Three days later, police officers knocked on the door of her hotel room and found her eating breakfast in a lace-trimmed dressing gown. She was not, as wild rumours around Paris soon claimed, naked. At the Palais de Justice she faced the investigating magistrate, Pierre Bouchardon. "From the very first interview, I had the intuition that she was a person in the pay of our enemies," he wrote later. "I had but one thought - to unmask her." The process was under way that would lead her unfairly but inexorably to her execution. It did not seem to matter that no one had the least bit of evidence against her. Nor could anyone point to a single document, plan or secret that she passed to the Germans. Suspicion, envy and the prejudices of small-minded men would triumph. Only 30 years after her death would one of her prosecutors concede the truth - "there wasn't enough evidence to flog a cat".
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The Museum of Friesland in Leeuwarden, the Netherlands Biographical Exhibition Devoted to Mata Hari’s Life
LEEUWARDEN, the Netherlands — In December 1915, Margaretha Zelle, the woman known to all the world as the exotic dancer Mata Hari, was traveling by ship from one of her lovers in Paris to another in The Hague. The international sex symbol was famous for provocative routines in a nude body stocking with a bejeweled bra and golden headdress. Sometimes she would tell people she was a Javanese princess or the daughter of an Indian temple dancer, but only rarely would she reveal that she was Dutch. It was the middle of World War I and her circuitous route took her through British waters, where the authorities stopped the boat to question those on board. After looking at Zelle’s papers, and searching her possessions, they made a note: No evidence of anything had been found on her person, but she was nevertheless a “bold sort of woman who is not above suspicion.” In the charged atmosphere of the war, this was enough for the authorities to call for her arrest if she ever tried to enter the United Kingdom again. A copy of their report was sent to the French secret service, where it landed on the desk of a French military intelligence officer, George Ladoux.
Police Photo Shows Margaretha Zelle After Her Arrest in 1917
Ladoux, convinced that Zelle was a spy, became determined to catch her in an act of espionage. He recruited her to work for French intelligence, sure that she was a double agent for the Germans. In early 1917, Ladoux later arrested and interrogated Zelle, and garnered what he took as a confession: She admitted to taking money from the Germans, though she firmly denied having ever provided them with any useful espionage. On Oct. 14, Mata Hari was executed by firing squad. Newspaper reports described her as refusing to wear a blindfold and blowing kisses to the soldiers who raised their rifles against her. Now, 100 years after the execution, the archives of her interrogation and trial have been opened to the public, and her complicated, extraordinary life is being reassessed and commemorated in the Netherlands, the country that she tried to leave behind at age 19. The Museum of Friesland in Leeuwarden is staging a biographical exhibition devoted to her life, while the Dutch National Ballet in Amsterdam is reprising a contemporary ballet, “Mata Hari,” which premiered in 2016 to great popular success. A theater piece focused on her mysterious life and performed by the singer and actor Tet Rozendal is also touring the country. “Her story is still relevant in that she’s a woman who does not conform to society’s norms, and to anyone else’s ideas,” said Ted Brandsen, the managing director of the Dutch National Ballet. “She’s really about female transgression: She breaks through the limits of respectability.” The commemorations in the Netherlands all attempt to separate the myth of Mata Hari from the truth of Margaretha Zelle’s life. But Zelle often presented herself as someone else from somewhere else — as Mata Hari, the exotic princess from the East — and her compatriots have had an uneasy relationship with her persona ever since.
Young Gyu Choi, top, and Anna Tsygankova in “Mata Hari”
Dutch National Ballet - 2016
“Almost everyone here knew that she got famous through exotic dancing, and people here didn’t like that,” said Klaas Zandberg, the coordinator of the Leeuwarden Historical Center, an archive in the city where Zelle was born in 1876 and lived until she was 18. He said many locals “still think that she’s some kind of whore who still gets too much attention.” Mr. Brandsen said that she still commands fascination: “Ninety-eight to ninety-nine percent of the seats” for each performance of the ballet were sold in 2016, he said. Although her childhood was spent in a prosperous household, her father, a hat merchant and speculator, lost all his money when she was 14. A series of tragic events followed: Her parents divorced, her mother died, her father left her with relatives and that didn’t go well. At 18, she answered a newspaper ad from a 39-year-old captain in the Dutch colonial army, met him for a date and married him five months later. Zelle’s husband, Rudolph MacLeod, took her with him to the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia), where she learned some Javanese dance and had two children. Her son died suddenly at age 3, possibly from mercury poisoning by a nanny. The couple divorced; when her husband refused to pay alimony, she left her daughter with him and found ways to support herself. In 1903, she moved to Paris. Later, when asked why, she is reported to have said, “I thought all women who ran away from their husbands went there.” She was equally saucy and vague about her personal history once she transformed herself into Mata Hari. Although today’s exotic dancers are associated with grimy clubs, Mata Hari’s sensational premiere took place at the Musée Guimet in Paris, an art institution where it was seen by upper-crust socialites, and her enormous and immediate success thrust her into their ranks. “She was at least a millionaire at one point,” said Hans Groeneweg, the curator of the Museum of Friesland exhibition.
Margaretha Zelle Wears Her Mata Hari Garb (Undated Photo)
Preparing for the exhibition took four years. Mr. Groeneweg and other curators researched Mata Hari’s past extensively and drew new conclusions about her history. It was not entirely clear that she ever spied for the Germans, for example, though she admitted to taking money from them, perhaps because she was broke at the time. “When you read what information she gave to the Germans, you think it’s all very small,” Mr. Groeneweg said. “Like she’d tell that there was going to be an offensive in the spring, but everyone already knew that.” The exhibition presents original documents from her trial — including her “confession” document — that were unsealed by the French authorities in January, along with personal letters and diary entries, on loan from Zelle’s family, that have never been shown to the public.
A Headdress with Ear Plates, Part of a Costume Possibly Worn by Mata Hari
Displayed at the Museum of Friesland
Artifacts of her life include a gold brooch she bought for her daughter, her prayer book and a portrait of her painted by Isaac Israels. The exhibit ends with a wall of posters from books and films that have focused on her life, including films in which she was played by Greta Garbo and Marlene Dietrich. Femme fatale, fallen woman, brazen double agent — every generation has its own version of Mata Hari. Today, Mr. Groeneweg said, there is a “bigger, broader picture” of the woman known as Mata Hari. “We are trying to focus on more aspects of her life than only her dancing career or whether she was a spy,” he said. “When you focus on Margaretha as a mother or a spouse, you can relate to more aspects of her life.” But the documents from the French archives have not filled in all of the gaps, Mr. Groeneweg said. “In some way, perhaps we have to be glad not knowing the complete story,” he added. “Something of the myth has to be preserved.”